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浅谈动词不定式的七大用法

动词不定式一般由“to+动词原形”构成。它在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用,同时也保留着动词的一些特征,可以有自己的宾语或状语。动词不定式在句中通常可作主语、表语、宾语、定语和补助语,有时还可有自己的逻辑主语,即for sb to do。
  一、动词不定式作主语。 
不定式短语可以直接在句首作主语,表示比较具体的意义,经常和特定的动作和执行者联系起来;谓语动词用单数。
如:Not to smoke will do you a lot of good. 不吸烟将会对你的身体有很多好处。
有时为保持句子平衡,常用it作形式主语,不定式作真正的主语放在后面,注意:若有不定式作表语,作主语的不定式不能用it作形式主语。例如:
To see is to believe。眼见为实。
另外,为强调不定式所表示动作的执行者,可以在不定式的前面加for sb构成不定式的复合结构;在表示人物性格,特性等的形容词后面用介词of,如:
It is difficult for Marty Fielding to know what the future holds. 对马蒂・菲尔丁来说很难知道未来是什么样的。
It was careless of me to lose my umbrella.我太粗心了,丢了雨伞。
  二、动词不定式作表语。 
(1)放在be动词后起解释说明的作用。例如:
Now his ambition is to become an actor. 现在他的雄心是当一名演员。
Its purpose is to involve in physical exercise and athletic competition. 其(运动主题公园的)目的是让游客参与身体锻炼和体育比赛。
(2)位于seem,appear,prove,remain等系动词后构成系表结构,说明主语的状况或内容。例如:
I seem to have forgotten so many things now that Christmas is here. 由于圣诞节到了,我似乎已忘记如此多的事情。
注意:当主语部分有动词do时,作表语的不定式可省略to。例如:
All she could do was go back home. 她所能做的就是回家。
  三、动词不定式作宾语。 
(1)按照惯用法,hope,promise, learn, agree, manage, start等动词后面常接动词不定式作宾语。例如:
He hopes to become a teacher. 他希望成为一名教师。
(2)若作宾语的不定式后面有宾语补足语时常用这种句型:主语+v.+ it+ adj./ n.+ to do sth,it是形式宾语,to do为真正的宾语。此类动词有think, find, make, believe, consider, feel等。例如:
Does this disability make it difficult for them to do some things? 残疾会使得他们做某些事情困难吗?
(3)动词不定式和疑问词连用构成动词不定式短语作动词(know, show, tell,understand)等的宾语。例如:
Unfortunately,the doctor does not know how to make me better. 不幸的是,医生不知道怎样使我好转。
注意 当but, except, besides等后面带不定式时,如果其前面有动词do,其后常省to,即“前有do,后省to”。例如:
He can do nothing but put off his wedding. = He has no choice but to put off his wedding. 除了延迟婚期他别无选择。
  四、动词不定式作定语。 
不定式作定语必须放在被修饰词后,且不定式常和它修饰的词之间有动宾关系、主谓关系或同位关系。在主谓关系中,不定式所修饰的名词或代词前面常有only, first, last, next, 序数词,形容词最高级等修饰。若不定式是不及物动词,后面必须加上必要的介词。动词不定式作定语从时间来说,表示将来意义。例如:
I am always the first person to get to the office. 我总是第一个到办公室的人。(主谓关系)
Here is some paper for you to write on. 这有些纸供你书写。 (动宾关系)
Last month I was lucky enough to have a chance to make a trip into space with my friend Li Yanping, an astronomer. 上个月,我有幸得到一个机会同我的朋友李彦平一起去太空旅行,他是一个宇航员。 (同位关系)
Give them encouragement to live as rich and full a life as you do. 给他们鼓励,让他们和你一样过上富裕而充实的生活。 (同位关系)
  五、动词不定式作状语。 
动词不定式作状语修饰动词。不定式可作目的状语、结果状语、原因状语和方式状语等。例如:   She is proud to have taken part in competition.她对于参加了比赛感到很自豪。 (原因状语)
He used dictation to give his answers into a special machine. 他用听写把他的答案输进一台专门的机器。(目的状语)
Sometimes, I was too weak to go to school so my education suffered. 有时候我身体太虚弱了而不能上学,因此我的功课变差了。 (结果状语)
Mike raised his hands as if to take off his hat.迈克举起手好像要取掉帽子。 (方式状语)
注意 在强调目的状语时,不定式前可加上in order 或so as,即我们所说的“in order to/so as to”词组。有时候为了突出目的,还可将这个词组置于句首,但so as to一般不用于句首。例如:
In order to persuade people to do something, advertisements often appeal to our hopes and dreams or our emotions. 为了规劝人们去做某事,广告常常激起人们的希望,梦想和情感。
在so as … to, enough to do sth, only to do sth, too … to 等结构中,不定式表示结果。例如:
Will you be so kind as to open the window? 劳驾你打开窗户好吗?
He arrived at the airport only to find the plane had already taken off. 他到达机场却发现飞机已经起飞了。
在too…to…结构中,当 too后面是glad, pleased, willing, ready, eager等形容词时,不定式表示肯定。
She was too happy to meet her friend in the street. 在街上遇到朋友,她太高兴了。
He is too eager to see you at once. 他渴望马上见到你。
  六、动词不定式作补语。 
常见的接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, command, direct, enable, encourage, except, forbid, force, instruct, invite, oblige, order, permit, persuade, press, recommend, remind, request, teach, tell, train, urge, want, warn, 等。例如:
I was interested in astronomy and he asked me to give a presentation to the class. 我对天文学很感兴趣,他叫我对全班作口头陈述。
有些感官动词和使役动词接不定式作宾语补足语时,通常不带to。下面的口诀可以帮助大家记住这些动词:“四看(see, watch, notice, observe) 三使役(let, make, have) 二听(hear, listen to) 一感觉(feel)”。例如:
Instead they made me wait while they checked everyone’s air ticket. 他们在检查所有人的机票同时让我等着。
感官动词和使役动词make用于被动语态时,作主语补足语的不定式要带to,例如:
Tom doesn’t have to be made to learn. He always works hard. 不必强迫汤姆学习,他一直很用功。
另外,help后的动词不定式作宾补时可以带to,也可以不带。
动词不定式可作宾语补足语和主语补足语。例如:
In many ways my disability has helped me grow stronger psychologically. 在许多方面,我的残疾帮助我在心理上变得更加坚强。
He is known to have spent eighteen years fighting slaves. 人们知道他花费了18年与奴隶作斗争。
The doctor had her assistant pick up some hot dogs for the meeting. 医生让她助手为会议准备些热狗。
  七、动词不定式作独立成分 
独立成分独立于句子之外,表示说话者的语气,态度等。常用于独立成分的动词不定式有 to tell the truth说实话,to be honest老实说, to be frank with you 坦诚地说, to begin with首先,to put it briefly简言之等。例如:
To tell the truth, we don’t want to go with you.说实话,我们不想跟你去。
To be frank with you, you are wrong. 坦白说,你错了。

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